Tag Archives: Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s Third Term Nomination

Yes, the true story of Pearl Harbor and our entry into World War II is a disgraceful story of governmental manipulation and treachery.  Why would Franklin Delano Roosevelt have wanted to expand two separate wars in Europe and Asia into a World War?  Was it for the purpose of hiding the abysmal failure of the New Deal?  Or was it for the purpose of instigating a New World Order based on World Government and abolition of national sovereignty and the autonomous integrity of the people of Europe, North America, and other “caucasian isolates” around the world?  Why would the American President have done such a thing?  Was World War II a just war or a monstrosity of lies?  Did we really have a quarrel with the Japanese over the ownership of Hawaii?  If so, why do the Japanese and Filipino peoples now pretty much “rule” Hawaii with Anglo-Americans living here as a weak minority? (I’m writing this at the end of a two week stay on Maui, so I’m really thinking about Hawaii a lot…and what a better day to be in Hawaii that Pearl Harbor Day 2012, 71 years after the infamous day when—what, our government arranged to have us attacked?

My dad, born June 6, 1923, was exactly 18 and a half years old and had been in Hawaii just over a week on the original Pearl Harbor day, having completed six months training in Long Beach, California….).  He stayed in the Navy through the war then went to college and graduate school on the G.I. Bill, as did so many.

But was War just a prelude to the expansion of the welfare state?  My grandparents taught me that World War II had five major effects: (1) it finally ended the depression where the New Deal had not, (2) it finally ended black slavery and white serfdom and sharecropping in the Old South, (3) it ended the British Empire, (4) it launched the United States and Soviet Empires into the Cold War, (5) the terrible destruction of Europe and in particular of Germany and the advent of the atom bomb caused the greatest confusion as to ethics, morality, and political values that had ever taken place in the worldwide history of mankind.

http://mises.org/daily/6312/How-US-Economic-Warfare-Provoked-Japans-Attack-on-Pearl-Harbor

How U.S. Economic Warfare Provoked Japan’s Attack on Pearl Harbor

Mises Daily: Friday, December 07, 2012 by 

The attack on Pearl Harbor

[This talk was the Arthur M. Krolman Lecture at the 30th Anniversary Supporters Summit of the Ludwig von Mises Institute, Callaway Gardens, Georgia, on October 26, 2012. Click here to watch the video of this talk.]

Many people are misled by formalities. They assume, for example, that the United States went to war against Germany and Japan only after its declarations of war against these nations in December 1941. In truth, the United States had been at war for a long time before making these declarations. Its war making took a variety of forms. For example, the U.S. navy conducted “shoot [Germans] on sight” convoys – convoys that might include British ships — in the North Atlantic along the greater part the shipping route from the United States to Great Britain, even though German U-boats had orders to refrain (and did refrain) from initiating attacks on U.S. shipping. The United States and Great Britain entered into arrangements to pool intelligence, combine weapons development, test military equipment jointly, and undertake other forms of war-related cooperation. The U.S. military actively cooperated with the British military in combat operations against the Germans, for example, by alerting the British navy of aerial or marine sightings of German submarines, which the British then attacked. The U.S. government undertook in countless ways to provide military and other supplies and assistance to the British, the French, and the Soviets, who were fighting the Germans. The U.S. government also provided military and other supplies and assistance, including warplanes and pilots, to the Chinese, who were at war with Japan.[1] The U.S. military actively engaged in planning with the British, the British Commonwealth countries, and the Dutch East Indies for future combined combat operations against Japan. Most important, the U.S. government engaged in a series of increasingly stringent economic warfare measures that pushed the Japanese into a predicament that U.S. authorities well understood would probably provoke them to attack U.S. territories and forces in the Pacific region in a quest to secure essential raw materials that the Americans, British, and Dutch (government in exile) had embargoed. [2]

Consider these summary statements by George Victor, by no means a Roosevelt basher, in his well documented book The Pearl Harbor Myth.

Roosevelt had already led the United States into war with Germany in the spring of 1941—into a shooting war on a small scale. From then on, he gradually increased U.S. military participation. Japan’s attack on December 7 enabled him to increase it further and to obtain a war declaration. Pearl Harbor is more fully accounted for as the end of a long chain of events, with the U.S. contribution reflecting a strategy formulated after France fell. . . . In the eyes of Roosevelt and his advisers, the measures taken early in 1941 justified a German declaration of war on the United States—a declaration that did not come, to their disappointment. . . . Roosevelt told his ambassador to France, William Bullitt, that U.S. entry into war against Germany was certain but must wait for an “incident,” which he was “confident that the Germans would give us.” . . . Establishing a record in which the enemy fired the first shot was a theme that ran through Roosevelt’s tactics. . . . He seems [eventually] to have concluded—correctly as it turned out—that Japan would be easier to provoke into a major attack on the Unites States than Germany would be. [3]

The claim that Japan attacked the United States without provocation was . . . typical rhetoric. It worked because the public did not know that the administration had expected Japan to respond with war to anti-Japanese measures it had taken in July 1941. . . . Expecting to lose a war with the United States—and lose it disastrously—Japan’s leaders had tried with growing desperation to negotiate. On this point, most historians have long agreed. Meanwhile, evidence has come out that Roosevelt and Hull persistently refused to negotiate. . . . Japan . . . offered compromises and concessions, which the United States countered with increasing demands. . . . It was after learning of Japan’s decision to go to war with the United States if the talks “break down” that Roosevelt decided to break them off. . . . According to Attorney General Francis Biddle, Roosevelt said he hoped for an “incident” in the Pacific to bring the United States into the European war.[4]

These facts and numerous others that point in the same direction are for the most part anything but new; many of them have been available to the public since the 1940s. As early as 1953, anyone might have read a collection of heavily documented essays on various aspects of U.S. foreign policy in the late 1930s and early 1940s, edited by Harry Elmer Barnes, that showed the numerous ways in which the U.S. government bore responsibility for the country’s eventual engagement in World War II—showed, in short, that the Roosevelt administration wanted to get the country into the war and worked craftily along various avenues to ensure that, sooner or later, it would get in, preferably in a way that would unite public opinion behind the war by making the United States appear to have been the victim of an aggressor’s unprovoked attack.[5] As Secretary of War Henry Stimson testified after the war, “we needed the Japanese to commit the first overt act.” [6]

At present, however, seventy years after these events, probably not one American in 1,000—nay, not one in 10,000—has an inkling of any of this history. So effective has been the pro-Roosevelt, pro-American, pro-World War II faction that in this country it has utterly dominated teaching and popular writing about U.S. engagement in the “Good War.”

In the late nineteenth century, Japan’s economy began to grow and to industrialize rapidly. Because Japan has few natural resources, many of its burgeoning industries had to rely on imported raw materials, such as coal, iron ore or steel scrap, tin, copper, bauxite, rubber, and petroleum. Without access to such imports, many of which came from the United States or from European colonies in Southeast Asia, Japan’s industrial economy would have ground to a halt. By engaging in international trade, however, the Japanese had built a moderately advanced industrial economy by 1941.

At the same time, they also built a military-industrial complex to support an increasingly powerful army and navy. These armed forces allowed Japan to project its power into various places in the Pacific and East Asia, including Korea and northern China, much as the United States used its growing industrial might to equip armed forces that projected U.S. power into the Caribbean, Latin America, and even as far away as the Philippine Islands.

When Franklin D. Roosevelt became president in 1933, the U.S. government fell under the control of a man who disliked the Japanese and harbored a romantic affection for the Chinese because, some writers have speculated, Roosevelt’s ancestors had made money in the China trade.[7] Roosevelt also disliked the Germans in general and Adolf Hitler in particular, and he tended to favor the British in his personal relations and in world affairs. He did not pay much attention to foreign policy, however, until his New Deal began to peter out in 1937. Thereafter he relied heavily on foreign policy to fulfill his political ambitions, including his desire for reelection to an unprecedented third term.

When Germany began to rearm and to seek Lebensraumaggressively in the late 1930s, the Roosevelt administration cooperated closely with the British and the French in measures to oppose German expansion. After World War II commenced in 1939, this U.S. assistance grew ever greater and included such measures as the so-called destroyer deal and the deceptively named Lend-Lease program. In anticipation of U.S. entry into the war, British and U.S. military staffs secretly formulated plans for joint operations. U.S. forces sought to create a war-justifying incident by cooperating with the British navy in attacks on German U-boats in the northern Atlantic, but Hitler refused to take the bait, thus denying Roosevelt the pretext he craved for making the United States a full-fledged, declared belligerent—a belligerence that the great majority of Americans opposed.

In June 1940, Henry L. Stimson, who had been secretary of war under William Howard Taft and secretary of state under Herbert Hoover, became secretary of war again. Stimson was a lion of the Anglophile, northeastern upper crust and no friend of the Japanese. In support of the so-called Open Door Policy for China, Stimson favored the use of economic sanctions to obstruct Japan’s advance in Asia. Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau and Interior Secretary Harold Ickes vigorously endorsed this policy. Roosevelt hoped that such sanctions would goad the Japanese into making a rash mistake by launching a war against the United States, which would bring in Germany because Japan and Germany were allied.

The Roosevelt administration, while curtly dismissing Japanese diplomatic overtures to harmonize relations, accordingly imposed a series of increasingly stringent economic sanctions on Japan. In 1939, the United States terminated the 1911 commercial treaty with Japan. “On July 2, 1940, Roosevelt signed the Export Control Act, authorizing the President to license or prohibit the export of essential defense materials.” Under this authority, “[o]n July 31, exports of aviation motor fuels and lubricants and No. 1 heavy melting iron and steel scrap were restricted.” Next, in a move aimed at Japan, Roosevelt slapped an embargo, effective October 16, “on all exports of scrap iron and steel to destinations other than Britain and the nations of the Western Hemisphere.” Finally, on July 26, 1941, Roosevelt “froze Japanese assets in the United States, thus bringing commercial relations between the nations to an effective end. One week later Roosevelt embargoed the export of such grades of oil as still were in commercial flow to Japan.” [8] The British and the Dutch followed suit, embargoing exports to Japan from their colonies in Southeast Asia.

Roosevelt and his subordinates knew they were putting Japan in an untenable position and that the Japanese government might well try to escape the stranglehold by going to war. Having broken the Japanese diplomatic code, the American leaders knew, among many other things, what Foreign Minister Teijiro Toyoda had communicated to Ambassador Kichisaburo Nomura on July 31: “Commercial and economic relations between Japan and third countries, led by England and the United States, are gradually becoming so horribly strained that we cannot endure it much longer. Consequently, our Empire, to save its very life, must take measures to secure the raw materials of the South Seas.”[9]

Because American cryptographers had also broken the Japanese naval code, the leaders in Washington also knew that Japan’s “measures” would include an attack on Pearl Harbor.[10] Yet they withheld this critical information from the commanders in Hawaii, who might have headed off the attack or prepared themselves to defend against it. That Roosevelt and his chieftains did not ring the tocsin makes perfect sense: after all, the impending attack constituted precisely what they had been seeking for a long time. As Stimson confided to his diary after a meeting of the War Cabinet on November 25, “The question was how we should maneuver them [the Japanese] into firing the first shot without allowing too much danger to ourselves.” After the attack, Stimson confessed that “my first feeling was of relief . . . that a crisis had come in a way which would unite all our people.”[11]

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Robert Higgs is senior fellow in political economy for the Independent Institute and editor of The Independent Review. He is the 2007 recipient of the Gary G. Schlarbaum Prize for Lifetime Achievement in the Cause of Liberty. Send him mail. See Robert Higgs’s article archives.

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Copyright © 2012 by the Ludwig von Mises Institute. Permission to reprint in whole or in part is hereby granted, provided full credit is given.

Notes

[1] See “Flying Tigers,” Wikipedia. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flying_Tigers.

[2] Robert Higgs, “How U.S. Economic Warfare Provoked Japan’s Attack on Pearl Harbor,” The Freeman 56 (May 2006): 36-37.

[3] George Victor, The Pearl Harbor Myth: Rethinking the Unthinkable (Dulles, Va.: Potomac Books, 2007), pp. 179-80, 184, 185, emphasis added.

[4] Ibid ., pp. 15, 202, 240.

[5] See Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace: A Critical Examination of the Foreign Policy of Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Its Aftermath, edited by Harry Elmer Barnes (Caldwell, Id.: Caxton Printers, 1953).

[6] Stimson as quoted in Victor, Pearl Harbor Myth, p. 105.

[7] Harry Elmer Barnes, “Summary and Conclusions,” in Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace: A Critical Examination of the Foreign Policy of Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Its Aftermath, edited by Harry Elmer Barnes (Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers, 1953), 682-83.

[8] All quotations in this paragraph are from George Morgenstern, “The Actual Road to Pearl Harbor,” in Barnes, ed., Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace, 322-23, 327-28.

[9] Quoted in Morgenstern, “The Actual Road to Pearl Harbor,” 329.

[10] Robert B. Stinnett, Day of Deceit: The Truth About FDR and Pearl Harbor (New York: Free Press, 2000).

[11] Quoted in Morgenstern, “The Actual Road to Pearl Harbor,” 343, 384.

July 18 in History—-Great Fire of Rome under Nero, A.D. 64, End of Papal Authority in England under King Henry VIII in 1536, Adolf Hitler’s Mein Kampf published in 1925 Edward Kennedy Drive’s off Chappaquiddick Bridge in 1969 while Apollo 11 Heading Towards the Moon—thoughts Tom Lehrer’s “The Year that Was” = 1965, also the first year without silver coinage in U.S. History, the year of (truly deadly) Immigration and Nationality Act if 1965, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the time-setting for Wes Anderson’s movie “Moonrise Kingdom”—with memories of an America that is truly Gone with the Wind….and July 18-23 there was massive flooding in Missouri….

I went to see Moonrise Kingdom for the Third Time last night and was reflecting on the significance of the choice of 1965 as the historical setting for a nostalgic movie about an all-white American small town community such as hardly exists anymore.  1965 was the subject of Tom Lehrer’s wonderful album of political and social satire called “The year that was”—“this year being the hundredth anniversary of the end of the Civil War, the 20th anniversary of the end of World War II, it’s been a good year for the War Buffs.”  He also noted that Malcolm X was assassinated that year on February 21, the first day of National Brotherhood Week, Winston Churchill died at the age of 90, and the nation trembled at the threat of Southern Resistance to Federal Power from Sheriff Clark in Georgia and (in a song about Nuclear Proliferation: “we’ll try to stay serene and calm, when ALABAMA gets the BOMB… who’s next? who’s next? who’s next?  WHO’S NEXT?”   The Heroic George Corley Wallace was then in his first term as Governor of that same terrifying Alabama… his first term was completed in 1966 and his wife Lurleen took over—as I’ve noted before, Lurleen in her short political career founded the school of theatre and dramatic arts which Suzanne Collins (author of the Hunger Games) attended.  If Lehrer could have foreseen the future in 1965, he probably also would have mentioned that this was Jim Garrison’s greatest year as District Attorney of Orleans Parish in New Orleans, when he began the investigations which ultimately led to his indictment of Clay Shaw for the Assassination of John F. Kennedy and the greatest of all of Oliver Stone’s movies, JFK.
1965 was indeed a critical year for the death of a much simpler, and a much better, America I knew only in its death agony years of 1966-1980 (I think it’s fair to say that, with the election of Ronald Wilson Reagan, the “Old America” was officially dead—it was Reagan’s job and role in history, in fact, to bury that old America even while he praised it….and appointed on fake conservative after another to stomp on the Old Constitutional Federal Republic’s grave….).
On a personal level, I did not know America at all in 1965 (except through TV and letters from my grandmother—people still wrote actual physical letters back then)—it was the last full year I was resident with my parents as toddler/small child in England.  My direct memories of the year are pretty much nil, the shock of relocating from Sloane Square in London, England to Highland Park in Dallas, Texas, was probably a much more powerful memory eraser than those flashes they use in “Men in Black”, especially at the age of 6….  But in 1965, there was the disastrous Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 which set out to destroy whatever remained of the hopes that Adolf Hitler must have had in 1925 that America would be the future home and center of the “Greater German” race…. That was the year when Pakistanis and Indians were first invited to take over America’s gas stations, late night convenience stores, and motels.
And in fact, oddly enough, one of my earliest memories of an American businessman not related to me was of a certain “Mr. Lewis”—an elegant Southern White man who owned ran the Texaco station within walking distance (albeit “on the other side of the tracks”) from the Highland Park “Katy” Railway station.
Yes, there really was such a place, and yes, I really did learn how to walk or bike from my grandparents’ house to which I relocated in the summer of 1966 to Mr. Lewis’ filling station to buy “a penny’s worth of peanuts”—which was actually an extremely large cloth bag, probably about 2 lbs if memory serves.  Yes, that was a very different world.  Mr. Lewis was white (he lived just a few doors down from his Texaco Station, which he had operated probably for 30 years by the time I met him and continued to operate until he died around 1980 or so) and all of his employees were white, and nobody ever thought anything of it then, and probably nobody else now remembers him or his employees except me, but I’m writing it all down as a historical fact because it was.
The first important historical fact I ever learned about 1965, I learned by the time I was nine because I had by then become an avid coin collector: 1965 was that the year that the U.S. stopped minting silver coins.  That in itself (the abolition of silver coinage) was a great tragedy, but I didn’t learn until much later that the U.S. actually went off the Silver Standard, and thus (apparently) forever abandoned Constitutional Currency.  Coppernickel dimes, quarters, and fifty cent pieces just never looked quite right side-by-side with their silver predecessors.
By about 1974-75, finishing High School at 14, taking a year off to go with my grandfather while he supervised cleaning and lubrication processes in cold climates during the construction of the first Trans-Alaska Oil Pipeline from Anchorage to Point Barrow, and then starting my undergraduate college years at Tulane University (in August 1975, when I was 15, with a fake ID so I could drink), I had learned that August of 1965 was the year of the great “Voting Rights Act” which Texas to this very day (July 2012) is contesting in Federal Court, even though it was passed under the signature of the first Texas President, who was (in retrospect) the most disloyal to his state that any President could possibly be.
  • July 18, Anno Domini 64 Great fire of Rome: A fire begins to burn in the merchant area of Rome and soon burns completely out of control while Emperor Nero reportedly plays his lyre and sings while watching the blaze from a safe distance. 
  • July 18, Anno Domini 390 “BC – Roman-Gaulish Wars: Battle of the Allia – A Roman army is defeated by raiding Gauls, leading to the subsequent sacking of Rome.” 
  • July 18, 1100 Jerusalem’s Godfrey of Bouillon dies at age 39 after successful forays against the Seljuk Turks that have taken him as far as Damascus
  • July 18, 1195 “Battle of Alarcos, great victory of Almohad ruler Abu Yusuf Ya’qub al-Mansur over the Castilian King Alfonso VIII.” 
  • July 18, 1536 Henry VIII declares himself the Head of the Church of England, having been “Fidei Defensor” for about 15 years already. 
  • July 18, 1536 The authority of the Pope is declared void in England. 
  • July 18, 1656 Polish-Lithuanian forces clashes with Sweden and its Brandenburg allies in the start of what is to be known as The Battle of Warsaw which ends in a decisive Swedish victory.  
  • July 18, 1753 “Lemuel Haynes, escapes from slaveholder in Framingham Mass” 
  • July 18, 1779 Commodore Abraham Whipple’s squadron captures 11 prizes in largest prize value of Revolutionary War. 
  • July 18, 1792 “John Paul Jones dies in Paris, France” 
  • July 18, 1813 “U.S. Frigate President captures British Daphne, Eliza Swan, Alert and Lion” during the War of 1812. 
  • July 18, 1814 British capture Prairie du Chien (Wisc) during the War of 1812….the British Couldn’t Figure out what to do with a town called “Prairie of the Dog” and this made them more willing to negotiate peace by November—which they did, only to lose the first land Battle of the War which they actually lost, namely the Battle of New Orleans, on January 8, 1815. 
  • July 18, 1830 Uruguay adopts its first constitution.  No one anywhere else really noticed or cared, but there were very few Nazi German escapees in South America at this point, so it wasn’t all that critical anyhow… 
  • July 18, 1853 “The first train to cross the US-Canada boundary, Portland, Maine – Montréal, Quebec”  
  • July 18, 1857 “Louis Faidherbe, French governor of Senegal, arrives to relieve French forces at Kayes, effectively ending El Hajj Umar Tall’s war on the French.”   These were indeed the early days of the French Foreign Legion.  The French Foreign Legion still exists and the French are still fighting the Muslims who came in from North Africa and decided France was a better place to live…. Vive Marine Le Pen…. 
  • July 18, 1861 American Civil War: Skirmish at Blackburn’s Ford prior to First Battle of Bull Run (1st Battle of Manassas).  Robert E. Lee should have marched on Washington at this point, but he made his first critical mistake by failing to do so—he was too much of a gentleman, as it turned out, ever to really win a war…. 
  • July 18, 1872 Britain introduces secret ballot voting. 
  • July 18, 1872 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland introduces voting by secret ballot. 
  • July 18, 1873 Oscar II of Sweden-Norway is crowned king of Norway in Trondheim. 
  • July 18, 1914 “The U.S. Congress forms the Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps, this gives definite status to aircraft within the U.S. Army for the first time.” 
  • July 18, 1914 “US army air service first comes into being, in the Signal Corps” 
  • July 18, 1918 US & French forces launch Aisne-Marne offensive in WW I 
  • July 18, 1920 Naval aircraft sink ex-German cruiser Frankfurt in target practice. 
  • July 18, 1925 Adolf Hitler publishes his personal manifesto Mein Kampf. 
  • July 18, 1925 First edition of Mein Kampf is published.  
  • July 18, 1931 The first air-conditioned ship (Mariposa) launched 
  • July 18, 1932 US & Canada signed a treaty to develop St Lawrence Seaway 
  • July 18, 1936 “Spanish Civil War: Francisco Franco’s rebellion reaches peninsular Spain and the Fallangists (Fascists) conquer Galicia, west Castile, west Andalucia and Aragon.”  Essentially, Franco’s victory by this time was assured. 
  • July 18, 1938 “Douglas “”Wrong Way”” Corrigan arrives in Ireland-left New York for California” —you’d think he would have noticed that the Midwest had an awful lot of water in it—before he landed in Ireland, anyhow…. 
  • July 18, 1940 “Democratic National Convention, Chicago: President Franklin D. Roosevelt is nominated for an unprecedented third term in office.”  This event, of course, was a necessary precursor to the abolition of the Silver Standard and Silver Coinage in 1965, and was not UNrelated to the Immigration & Nationality Act of 1965, in that World War II was a necessary pre-requisite to the abolition of an identity-conscious/identity proud America.
  •  
    July 18, 1940 “The first successful helicopter flight, Stratford, Ct”
  • July 18, 1942 “Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe, first jet fighter, takes first flight”  
  • July 18, 1942 The first legal NJ horse race in 50 years; Garden State Park track opens 
  • July 18, 1943 “German submarine shoots down K-47, the first and only U.S. airship lost during WW II.” 
  • July 18, 1944 World War II: Hideki Tojo resigns as Prime Minister of Japan due to numerous setbacks in the war effort. 
  • July 18, 1947 US receives UN trusteeship over Pacific Islands 
  • July 18, 1951 Jersey Joe Walcott KOs Ezzard Charles in 5 for heavyweight belt 
  • July 18, 1951 Uruguay accepts its constitution 
  • July 18, 1953 Rock star Elvis Presley made his first recording in Sun Studios.
  • July 18, 1955 The first electric power generated from atomic energy sold commercially  
  • July 18, 1959 The first black to win a major golf tournament (William Wright) 
  • July 18, 1963 Number one hit on UK music charts – Frank Ifield – Confessin’ 
  • July 18, 1964 Race riot in Harlem (NYC); riots spread to Bedford-Stuyvesant (Bkln) 
  • July 18, 1965 “Zond 3 launched to fly by Moon, enters solar orbit” 
  • July 18, 1966 “Bobby Fuller rocker (I Fought the Law), found dead” 
  • July 18, 1966 “Launch of Gemini 10 with LCDR John W. Young, USN as Command Pilot. Mission involved 43 orbits at an altitude of 412.2 nautical miles and lasted 2 days, 22 hours, and 46 minutes. Recovery was by HS-3 helicopter from USS Guadalcanal (LPH-7).” 
  • July 18, 1967 Silver hits record $1.87 an ounce in NY 
  • July 18, 1968 Intel incorporates 
  • July 18, 1968 “Vietnam War: The two-day Honolulu Conference begins in Honolulu, Hawaii between US President Lyndon B. Johnson and South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu.” 
  • July 18, 1969 “After a party on Chappaquiddick Island, Senator Ted Kennedy from Massachusetts drives an Oldsmobile off a wooden bridge into a tide-swept pond and his passenger, Mary Jo Kopechne, dies.”  
  • July 18, 1969 “Barbara Pepper actress (Doris Ziffel-Green Acres), dies at 57” 
  • July 18, 1969 “Joe Namath agrees to sell interest in Bachelors 3, to stay in NFL” 
  • July 18, 1969 Mary Jo Kopechne & Sen Kennedy plunge off Chappaquiddick bridge  
  • July 18, 1970 Arthur Brown arrested for stripping on stage in Palemo Sicily 
  • July 18, 1970 Ron Hunt gets hit by a pitch for a record 119th time 
  • July 18, 1970 “Willie Mays hits # 3,000” 
  • July 18, 1972 “200,000 attend Mt Pocono rock festival in Penns” 
  • July 18, 1973 “British actor Jack Hawkins actor, dies at 62” 
  • July 18, 1974 “World’s tallest structure, 646-m Polish radio mast, completed” 
  • July 18, 1976 “Gymnast Nadia Comaneci, age 14, scores first ever perfect 10 at the Olympics.” 
  • July 18, 1976 “Thiokol conducts 2-min firing of space shuttle’s SRB at Brigham, Ut” 
  • July 18, 1977 Vietnam joins the United Nations. 
  • July 18, 1978 Egyptian & Israeli officials begin 2 days of talks 
  • July 18, 1979 Gold hits record $303.85 an ounce in London 
  • July 18, 1980 Billy Joel’s Glass Houses album tops charts 
  • July 18, 1980 “Rohini 1, first Indian satellite, launches into orbit” 
  • July 18, 1982 “268 campesinos (“”peasants”” or “”country people””) are slain in the Plan de Snchez massacre in Ros Montt’s Guatemala.” 
  • July 18, 1984 James Huberty kills 21 McDonalds patrons in San Ysidro Calif 
  • July 18, 1984 James Oliver Huberty shot by police after killing 21 in McDonalds 
  • July 18, 1984 “McDonald’s massacre in San Ysidro, California: In a fast-food restaurant, James Oliver Huberty opens fire, killing 21 people and injuring 19 others before being shot dead by police.” 
  • July 18, 1984 Walter F Mondale wins Democratic presidential nomination in SF 
  • July 18, 1986 A tornado is broadcast live on KARE television in Minnesota when the station’s helicopter pilot makes a chance encounter.

  • July 18, 1986 Videotapes released showing Titanic’s sunken remains 

  • July 18, 1987 Molly Yard elected new pres of Natl Org for Women 
  • July 18, 1987 Yanks Don Mattingly ties major league record of HRs in 8 cons games 
  • July 18, 1989 “Actress Rebecca Schaeffer is shot by a crazed fan, prompting California to pass America’s first anti-stalking law in 1990.” 
  • July 18, 1992 The ten victims of the La Cantuta massacre disappeared from their university in Lima. 
  • July 18, 1995 “On the Caribbean island of Montserrat, the Soufriere Hills volcano erupts. Over the course of several years, it devastates the island, destroying the capital and forcing most of the population to flee.”  
  • July 18, 1996 “In an event very similar to the Oklahoma tornado that would occur three years later, an F5 tornado hit the town of Oakfield, Wisconsin.” 
  • July 18, 1996 “Storms provoke severe flooding on the Saguenay River, beginning one of Qubec’s costliest natural disasters ever.” 
  • July 18, 1997 8000 low-caste Indians riot in Mumbai (Bombay) following a funeral for 10 children who had been killed by police. 
  • July 18, 1998 “A 23-foot tidal wave kills nearly 3,000 people in Papua New Guinea.”
  • July 18, 2001 “In Baltimore, Maryland, a 60-car train derails in a tunnel, sparking a fire that lasted for days and virtually brought downtown Baltimore to a standstill.”